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Northwestern Health Sciences University

Writing & Citing

Use this guide to find tools and resources to help you write more clearly, easily and with confidence.

General APA Resources

APA Citation Style is created by the American Psychological Association.  Like the AMA Citation Style, it can be found used in scientific and medical journals.  

The following resources provide more information on how to write APA papers and create APA citations. 

In-Text Citations and The Reference List

APA citations require an in-text citation and a reference list citation.  Here is some general information about APA citations.  Consult the APA Quick Guide below for examples. 

Purpose of in-text citations:

  • Are within the body of the paper.  They are placed after information or ideas to give credit to the original source of information. 
  • Every in-text citation should reference a full citation in the reference list.  The in-text citation guides the reader to that longer citation.
  • In APA style, in-text citations are parenthetical.  In other words, they appear within (parentheses).

Format of in-text citations:

  • Within parentheses
  • Includes authors' last names if one or two others.  If there are more than three authors, it's Last name et. al.
  • Includes year of publication
  • If it's a direct quote, a page number needs to be included.  If the document doesn't have a page number, then refer to the paragraph number. 
  • There is an alternate in-text option where the author is part of the sentence.  In that case, only the year is included after the author's name.  If it's a quote, the page number or paragraph number goes at the end of the sentence

Important Points About The Reference List:

  • At the end of the paper
  • References appear in alphabetical order.  The first author in the in-text citation should be the first author in the reference list as well.
  • The information in the reference list should include all a reader would need to discover the original item being cited. 

APA QuickGuide

Formatting an APA Student Paper